Speaking and Rhetorical Techniques
The capacity to convince others has always been the pinnacle of human efficiency. As a result, the purpose or goal of public speaking is to influence behavior that would not have occurred without the speaker’s words. People would comment on Demosthenes’ speaking abilities, for instance, when he was speaking. When Alcibiades spoke, however, they shouted, “Let us march!” As a speaker, it is your responsibility to inspire and compel your audience to think, feel, and act differently as a result of your words. It’s to persuade people to take some sort of action. It’s to spur them on to “march!” Fortunately, becoming a skilled communicator and speaker can be learned. You may become a successful speaker and alter not only your life but the lives of your listeners if you can learn how to drive a car, type on a keyboard, or use a phone, including if you work at Korindo Group company.
The Three Aspects of Influence
The use of rhetoric as a vital tool for leaders was originally acknowledged by Aristotle, a famous philosopher. He divided the fundamental components of persuasion into three categories: pathos, ethos, and logos (emotion). Let’s examine each one in turn.
The terms “logos” and “words” in your argument all allude to its logical foundation. To make a statement or an argument cohesive, it’s critical that everything you say ties together like links in a chain or pieces of a jigsaw puzzle. When you prepare and plan your speech, you arrange your numerous points in a flow from the broad to the specific, from the introduction to the conclusion, with each point building on the one before it to create a convincing argument.
Ethos is the second component of persuasion. Your morals, ethics, and ability to be believed when you talk are all referred to in this. It is more likely that listeners will accept your reasoning and follow your recommendations if you gain their trust both before and during your speech.
Pathos is the third component of persuasion. Perhaps the most significant aspect of your argument is its emotional content. People can only be moved to change their thinking and perform a specific action when you emotionally connect with them and affect them on a deep level.
To influence people and persuade them to your point of view, all three elements—logos, ethos, and pathos—must be integrated.
The Three Elements That Make Up Your Message
Several years ago, UCLA’s Albert Mehrabian conducted a number of experiments on effective communication. He came to the conclusion that any spoken message consists of three elements: the words, the voice tone, and the body language of the speaker.
Surprisingly, just 7% of the communication is communicated through words, according to Mehrabian. Of course, the words you choose to employ are crucial and should be carefully chosen. They ought to be grammatically sound and properly structured. However, everyone has experienced a dry, intellectual speaker whose words were excellent but whose point was lost. Words by themselves are insufficient.
The tone of voice was the second component of communication that Mehrabian noted. His estimate is that the speaker’s emphasis and tone of voice account for 38% of the message. Say the phrase “I love you very much.” You can alter the meaning of a sentence entirely by emphasizing any one of those terms or by rephrasing it as a question rather than a statement. Try it. Make sure your tone conveys a query or an honest remark. Take note of how concentrating on a single word might result in a whole different interpretation. Every man has experienced arguing with a lady in his life on a straightforward issue. Males and women perceive the same words differently because men typically use words as tools while women typically use words to comprehend and establish relationships. She might, for instance, experience hurt or anger as a result of what he said. In response, he will retort, “But I just said such and such.” It wasn’t what you said; it was how you said it, she will retort fiercely. You may completely alter the message you’re conveying to your audience and the impact it has on them by being conscious of how vital it is to do so and purposefully adjusting your voice tone.
According to this, body language of the speaker accounts for 55 percent of the communication. This is due to the fact that there are 22 times more nerves leading from the eye to the brain than from the ear. Visual impressions are therefore quite potent. Recognize your communication style. Excellent communicators are always aware of how their body language affects how well received the message they are attempting to express. Your audience will unwind and absorb your message like a sponge when your arms swing loosely at your sides, palms facing outward and open, and you grin directly at them while you talk. Your audience will react as though a furious father is reprimanding them if your countenance is grave and unamused, and you have your arms crossed or clenched around the podium. They shut down and become hostile, rejecting your message and your efforts to influence people to think and behave in a certain manner. Body language is extremely crucial! Speakers frequently seek me for my feedback on a talk or seminar they just gave since I have given so many talks to so many different audiences. Because individuals generally tend to be hypersensitive to criticism and negative feedback, I am always hesitant to offer it. Still, it amazes me how frequently I offer the same piece of advice: “Slow down, pause, and smile between points and sentences.”
It is also astonishing how many presenters follow this suggestion and observe a quick, favorable change in how their audiences receive them. You speak more clearly and come across as more intelligent when you speak more slowly. Your voice is more pleasurable and nice. And when you grin, you exude kindness, acceptance, and warmth. Your audience will unwind as a result and be more receptive to your message. More on this will be covered in Chapter 8.
A Simple Format for Brief Talks
Any speech can be created using a straightforward three-part structure. This methodology can be applied to 30-minute talks as well as one-minute presentations.
The onset of Part 1. You merely inform the audience of what will be spoken in your speech. You could say, for instance, “Thank you for coming. I’ll discuss the three issues that now plague our sector in the following few minutes, as well as the steps we can take to address them in the months to come. This introduction establishes the scene, gets the audience ready, and provides your speech a direction to follow.
Telling them what you promised in the opening is the second step. There may be one, two, or three points in this. If the speech is brief, it should only cover three main ideas that are explored sequentially. You may remark, for instance, “We are dealing with growing competition, narrowing profit margins, and shifting client preferences. Let’s examine each of these in turn and think of other approaches to coping with them successfully.
A recap of what you just informed the audience is the third and last component of speaking. Never assume that your audience will retain anything you say the first time they hear it. Your audience will find it informative and entertaining if you look back, summarize, and repeat. As an illustration, you may write: In conclusion, we must raise the caliber of our services and quicken the pace at which we give them to customers in order to contend with growing competition. We must enter new markets and broaden our product offerings in order to entice new clients in order to combat contracting markets. To adapt to shifting consumer preferences, we must create and promote goods and services that meet current needs rather than hypothetical future needs. We shall not only survive, but also prosper in the exciting times ahead with our shared commitment to these three objectives. I’m grateful. You’ve got work to do.
Every speech has a job to do, Peggy Noonan, a speechwriter for Ronald Reagan, famously penned. Before you talk, starting with the finish in mind is one of the most crucial things you must accomplish. Determine the goal of your presentation. What I refer to as the “objective question” is this: “What would I want people to say if they interviewed them after my talk and asked them, “What did you receive from this speech and what are you going to do differently as a result?”” This purpose should be the focus of every aspect of your speech, from the introduction to the conclusion. When I consult with business customers, I pose the “objective question.” I also inquire as to the purpose of their invitation and the goal(s) they hope I will achieve with their audience. The specific thoughts, feelings, and actions we want the audience to have following the speak or seminar are then discussed and decided. Once we are both on the same page, I will plan the talk or seminar from beginning to end with that goal in mind. You can follow suit.
An Advanced Format for Longer Speeches
There is a more complex structure you can use when creating a lengthier talk. The eight components are as follows, each of which I shall elaborate on and explain in the pages that follow.
- The Opening. The opening’s goals are to capture the audience’s interest, set expectations, and draw attention to the speaker. If no one is listening or paying attention, speaking is useless.
- The Introduction. This is the time to explain to the audience what will happen and why it will be significant.
- The First Point. You now enter the main portion of your speech. Your first point establishes the scene and starts to fulfill your original commitment.
- The Transition into the Next Point. You need to make it apparent when one point is over and you’re ready to move on to the next. This in itself is a form of art.
- The Second Key Point. This point ought to naturally flow from your first.
- Another Transition. you make it apparent that you are switching to a different topic.
- The Third Key Point. This simply follows from the first two arguments and starts to steer the conversation toward its conclusion.
- The Summary. This is your summary and recommendation.
You will learn how to structure and build your talk in Chapter 2 so that you may accomplish each of these objectives in the right order and sequence. There is no alternative for practice, especially practicing in front of an audience, for learning to communicate effectively. I have seen hundreds of lectures delivered over the years, both by pros and amateurs, and you can always tell when they have been carefully prepared for. Speaking with Presence and Power Elbert Hubbard, a well-known novelist, was once questioned about the writing process. In response, he said, “The only way to learn to write is to write and write and write and write and write.”
Similar to how learning the art of speaking requires constant speaking, speaking, speaking, speaking, speaking, and more speaking, is the only way to learn. Speaking may be learned just like any other talent. The skill to communicate and convince must be mastered through practice and repetition. Reciting poetry out loud is one of the best strategies to enhance your speaking abilities and style. Choose a poem that you like, one with a terrific tale and lovely lines, and memorize it. Then, repeatedly recite it. Put enthusiasm and energy into your voice whenever you read this poem out loud. Change up the words’ rhythm, tone, and emphasis. Imagine that you are attending an audition for a significant part in a high-profile film that will make you wealthy and well-known.
Deliver the poem’s words with the conviction that engaging the listener’s emotions and enthusiasm is of the utmost importance. Reading well-written poetry teaches you how to craft sentences as well as how to use a wider variety of words to convey your ideas more forcefully. People will forget what you said, but they will remember how you said it, is the guiding principle. You develop an almost melodic capacity to communicate in a way that keeps your audience engaged as you shift the focus from word to word and phrase to sentence. Reading Shakespeare is a fantastic practice, particularly the well-known monologues from Hamlet, Macbeth, Julius Caesar, and Romeo and Juliet. Reading these great monologues and soliloquies helps you improve your language skills as well as your rhetorical and persuasive abilities.
Finding out from Others
Listening to as many other speakers as you can is one of the finest methods to improve as a speaker. Make a note. Keep an eye on their gestures, movements, and speech. Study the opening of a talk, the entry into the talk’s body, the use of examples, illustrations, and comedy, the talk’s conclusion, and the speaker’s interaction with the audience.
From the beginning to the end, make a list of the things you want to pay attention to, and then assign the speaker a grade between 1 and 10. Consider how you could have performed each task more effectively and how he or she could have. Listen to some of the greatest speeches ever delivered; many are offered on CD. Play them repeatedly and take note of the speaker’s use of logos, ethos, and pathos to influence the listener’s thoughts, feelings, and actions.
Communication is wonderful because you cannot become worse at it by using it. You must be willing to learn and practice for months or even years on end in order to master a skill. Shortcuts are not available. It’s crucial to keep in mind that preparation is what makes the difference between mediocrity and brilliance. Spend time thinking through your arguments, organizing your thoughts, and working toward your audience’s objectives. also exercise. Your capacity to become a skilled speaker grows with each new line of poetry you learn and can recite, each monologue you present publicly, and each speaker you watch and evaluate. Nothing is off bounds.